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What Are Egress Windows? Does My Basement Need Them?

What Are Egress Windows? Does My Basement Need Them?

A finished basement can be one of the simplest ways to add extra space to your home. It can be a good area for another bedroom, a family room or a playroom.

As you get ready for your basement remodeling project, be aware that you may need to add wider windows. Egress windows, also known as basement windows, are large openings that provide a secondary exit in an emergency. They can also add natural light and make your basement feel more inviting.

Egress windows are required for basement bedrooms, regardless of whether your basement is renovated. They’re also needed for living spaces in basements that don’t have egress windows. This affects offices, TV rooms, workout rooms and workshops, to list a few.

These windows are an important secondary exit. During an emergency, stairs or an above-ground basement door could be impassible. Egress windows need to be big enough for an average adult—or a firefighter in full gear—to come through.

In short, your finished basement won’t be fully finished until egress window installations are finalized.

Windows in Older Basements May Be Too Small

Basements in older homes, especially those made before World War II, were not originally designed to be remodeled into sleeping or living areas. Homeowners back then used this kind of basement for utility space, laundry and storage. Therefore, emergency escape windows weren’t necessary.

If you live in an older home, there’s a good chance it has narrow rectangular windows in the basement. Also called hopper windows, these above-ground windows open inward to let in fresh air. But these windows are small—too small for an adult or fully-equipped first responder to fit through.

Basement fires are common, with firefighters handling about 6,500 of them in the U.S. every year. And you don’t have much time to get out when there’s a house fire. It can become deadly in as little as 2 minutes and engulf a home within 5 minutes, according to the National Fire Protection Association.

Requirements for Basement Windows

Building codes require a basement window’s opening to be a specific size. This allows for a quick exit in an emergency.

According to the International Residential Code, basement windows must have:

  • An opening width of at least 20 inches.
  • An opening height of at least 24 inches.
  • A net clear opening of at least 821 square inches—or 5.7 square feet.
  • A sill no more than 44 inches off the floor.

Not sure if your existing basement windows meet present-day requirements? All you need is a tape measure.

  • Open the window completely.
  • Measure the width and height of the opening.
  • Multiply the width by the height.

Does your measurement match the required 821 square inches—or 5.7 square feet? If not, you need to have bigger windows installed.

If your basement windows are beneath ground level, you will need to have a well dug at the base of the window frame. This well needs to be at least 36 inches wide and 36 inches long. If the well is more than 44 inches deep, it will need a fixed ladder or steps.

It’s not complicated to add steps when you use timber or concrete blocks in the well. Plus, you can add several small landscaping features, like crushed rock or potted plants, to add to your curb appeal.

Basement windows can be positioned under a deck or porch as long as there’s enough room for an average-sized adult to escape. At minimum, there should be 36 inches between the top of the window well and the bottom of the deck or porch joists.

Because basement windows are an escape route, they must open from the inside. Any screens, grilles or bars need to be removable from the inside. Both must be done without keys or tools, because time is crucial in an emergency.

It’s also important that basement windows can completely open. The window sash, or the moveable part of the window that holds the glass, shouldn’t impede the opening. This enables your family to quickly exit—or first responders to quickly enter.

Local requirements for basement windows may be different. Check with Kingston building officials to learn more about area guidelines.

Choosing a Basement Window

There are several styles of windows that work well for basements and meet building code requirements.

Casement windows are a good option for homeowners with limited wall space. These windows open like a door, swinging free to provide a spacious opening.

Casement windows are opened by turning a handle. Pella® casement windows use a crank that tidily folds away so it won’t disrupt curtains.

The minimum net opening for this type of window is 8 square feet.

Sliding windows are great for homeowners who have a large basement or want more light. These windows have to be bigger because the opening is only half as wide as the window. This is due to the horizontal sliding sash.

Sliding windows are opened by pushing the sash, typically from left to right. Some Pella models have extra-durable tandem nylon rollers, which provide even smoother operation.

The minimum net opening for this type of window is 16 square feet.

Basement escape windows are necessary for downstairs living spaces. They can also be lifesaving equipment in an emergency. Talk with the professionals at Pella of Kingston when you’re preparing to remodel your basement. They can recommend the right windows that fit your project, budget and local egress requirements.

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